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Genesis and Evolution of the 1997-98 El Niño

Michael J. McPhaden

Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington

Science, 283, 950–954 (1999)
Copyright ©1999 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Further electronic distribution is not allowed.

The 1997–98 El Niño-Southern Oscillation was, by some measures, the strongest on record, with major climatic impacts felt around the world. A newly completed tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean observing system documented this El Niño from its rapid onset to its sudden demise in greater detail than was ever before possible. The unprecedented measurements challenge existing theories for El Niño-related climate swings and suggest why climate forecast models underpredicted the strength of the El Niño prior to its onset.

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